Twist, Hello there, I hope that all is well with you there in Germany. Thanks for commenting on the thread. PG Sulite spoke of the "Batangas" (Balisong) system as a knife fighting system with lethal, less-than-lethal and empty hand implications. Batangas is a village located in Northern Luzon which is the place where the batangas knife (balisong) was first created. PG Sulite wrote the second of his 3 books "Advanced Balisong" covering material from now sub-system of Lameco Eskrima. As for Lameco Eskrima PG Sulite always clarified that Lameco was neither a stick fighting system, nor was it a sword fighting system or knife fighting system. Rather it was an effective combative system which could be translated and used in accordance with what ever instrument of that could be placed in the human hand. To the extent that you find nothing with which to fight and you would translate that combative knowledge bone to bone (buto-buto). The curriculum of Lameco Eskrima is the same concerning all weapons and weapon combinations however the major difference found in the translation and usage of each technique, concept or principle is found in the emphasis of the weapon used or lack of weapon. You will fight differently with a knife than you would with a stick which would be fought with differently than a sword or machete. One system with many different facets of usage, direclty dependant on the type of weapon used and what the major emphasis of those weapons are. In answering the second part of your question I doubt that any system can trace their lineage to pure pilipino heritage. After all we are talking of a culture that for centuries has been interacting with numerous asiatic tribes regionally and let us not forget the 1521 - 1898 Spanish occupation. What is Indonesian? What is Malaysian? What is influenced from Borneo? What is Spanish? What is Dutch? What is Portuguese? What is Pilipino? This is a very difficult question to enter into as there is much conjecture in any probable answer. Its over all combative effect is enough for me... regardless from whence it came. Go well, ciao. Guro Dave Gould.